Electricity 101: Basic Fundamentals

Contact Us Piping Requirements For Flow Meter Installation A distorted fluid velocity profile is one of the most common reasons for inaccurate flow meter readings. Swirls or other distortions in the flow are caused by the tees, elbows and valves that make piping systems functional. The velocity of laminar flow is highest in the center of the flow and slower as it reaches the pipe walls. In most cases, natural laminar flow only exists in straight-run piping. When 90 degree angles, half-open valves, misaligned flanges, or even pipe wall pitting exist within a piping system, the fluid flowing through it is disrupted, which can cause inaccurate flow meter readings. Because of this, flow meter manufacturers will suggest a certain length of straight-run that must exist upstream and downstream of their meters. These requirements will vary by technology and manufacturer. Below are some very general suggestions for straight-run piping based on the type of flow measurement technology installed.

Block and bleed manifold

Supercardioid Shotgun A microphone’s directionality or polar pattern indicates how sensitive it is to sounds arriving at different angles about its central axis. The polar patterns illustrated above represent the locus of points that produce the same signal level output in the microphone if a given sound pressure level SPL is generated from that point.

How the physical body of the microphone is oriented relative to the diagrams depends on the microphone design.

The mounting site for the Rosemount transmitter should provide enough room for secure mounting, easy access to conduit ports, full opening of the transmitter covers, and easy readability of the LOI screen (see Figure 1).

The pipe diameter and the specific gravity remain constant for most liquid applications. At very low velocities or high viscosities, R is low, and the liquid flows in smooth layers with the highest velocity at the center of the pipe and low velocities at the pipe wall where the viscous forces restrain it. This type of flow is called laminar flow. R values are below approximately A characteristic of laminar flow is the parabolic shape of its velocity profile, Fig.

However, most applications involve turbulent flow, with R values above Turbulent flow occurs at high velocities or low viscosities. The flow breaks up into turbulent eddies that flow through the pipe with the same average velocity. Fluid velocity is less significant, and the velocity profile is much more uniform in shape.

A transition zone exists between turbulent and laminar flows.

Audio Chain Diagram

Hook-up drawing indicates tubing slopes, position of instrument in reference to process tapping point, scope break between instrument vs piping. Hook-up drawing also gives information the requirement of bulk material for each installation. It also details its specification size, type and material and the quantity. There are two types of hook-up drawing:

The pressure / differential pressure transmitter’s elements and body shall be made up of AISI L SS as minimum, unless process conditions dictate otherwise. The normal pressure shall be read at no greater than 75% of the calibrated span for transmitters reading steady pressure.

Sources Why you should trust us Rachel Cericola has written about consumer electronics for over 15 years and has tested home-theater products from remotes and AV receivers to speakers. He also had a seven-year stint as the technical editor of Home Theater magazine. There are four main uses for a wireless HD product: If your sources are in a different part of the room than the TV, you can send the signal wirelessly instead of running long cables e. This is an especially common situation with projectors.

With wireless, you only need to run power to the TV. The signal from your sources gets sent wirelessly to the small receiver box. In the case of the Iogear and Monoprice models, the TV itself can often power this wireless receiver. If you want to have your sources and TV in two different rooms. If you have equipment specifically with HDMI outputs e.

The right flow meter for every application

Batteries achieve the desired operating voltage by connecting several cells in series; each cell adds its voltage potential to derive at the total terminal voltage. Parallel connection attains higher capacity by adding up the total ampere-hour Ah. Some packs may consist of a combination of series and parallel connections. Laptop batteries commonly have four 3. Such a configuration is called 4s2p, meaning four cells in series and two in parallel.

Insulating foil between the cells prevents the conductive metallic skin from causing an electrical short.

Return flow to Outdoor boiler Outdoor boiler Pump V-3 V-1 Boiler, oil, gas or electric zones Boiler circulator pump Sample Installation Diagram for use with Outdoor Wood Fuel Boilers NOTES: 1- Damage to the heat exchanger due to improper water chemistry is not covered under the S.E.C. warranty. 2- This is only a conceptual drawing provided.

On the face, this is not particularly offensive if the class exists primarily within the AMYA. But if 99 percent of class boat owners are not AMYA members, and the class specification is approved by a multi-country class organization — then this practice is divisive. As we all know, there are enough challenges to growing and maintaining an RC sailboat class. It is confusing to newcomers and unnecessarily thumbs-a-nose to larger class organizations. In the past, AMYA members who own one of these two large classes have not attempted to change the class specifications within AMYA, even though they could.

But now, a splinter group from the Nirvana class is proposing to vote on a class specification that is not in compliance with the international class rule that Nirvana follows — and tomorrow, it could be the RC Laser specification coming under attack. We see no positive outcome of such a practice and think AMYA should exempt class specifications from AMYA voting where a superior class rule is in effect.

We are looking for your input on this seemingly unnecessary and class splitting action by AMYA. We encourage you to post your comments to this article. Fold in Your Sail? We get calls frequently about how to take a creases out of an RC Laser sail. Unfortunately, this is nearly impossible to do terry towel over sail with iron set to max steam.

Radio Transmission Block Diagram

Obviously, she was angry at the brutal damage that had been done to her unnamed subject. Gloria Waters was now the anonymous patient of a well-respected and married cosmetic surgeon. Doctor Joan Miller was a very complex, and beautiful woman.

BACKWASH RATE The rate of flow, in gallons per minute per square foot of filter surface area, required for efficient filter cleaning. CHLORINE A heavy, green, highly poisonous gas compressed in liquid form and stored in heavy steel tanks.

Piping Coordination Systems – Piping Isometrics Piping Isometric Unlike orthographics, piping isometrics allow the pipe to be drawn in a manner by which the length, width and depth are shown in a single view. Isometrics are usually drawn from information found on a plan and elevation views. The symbols that represent fittings, Valves and flanges are modified to adapt to the isometric grid. The Iso, as isometric are commonly referred, is oriented on the grid relative to the north arrow found on plan drawings.

Because iso’s are not drawn to scale, dimensions are required to specify exact lengths of piping runs. Pipe lengths are determined through calculations using coordinates and elevations. Vertical lengths of pipe are calculated using elevations, while horizontal lengths are caculated using north-south and east-west coordinates.

Piping isometrics are generally produced from orthographic drawings and are important pieces of information to engineers. In very complex or large piping systems, piping isometrics are essential to the design and manufacturing phases of a project.

Surface data sensors during drilling

Leave the car idle and you can run your refrigerator or freezer one at a time on this inverter. So you know if you are sipping power and can leave the car off all night or if you are being a power HOG and have to leave it idle. Use this alternate link if the one above is sold out. I do have and use Cobra inverters I’ve been surprised at how good some of them have been. IF you can’t get the Duracell one above, get this one.

Vortex technology is one of the few flow measurement techniques that is capable of measuring liquids, compressed gases, and steam. SMC’s ALVT Series meters are available for line sizes ranging from ½” through 20″ and are offered with in-line flanged or wafer style mounting as well as insertion-type with an optional hot-tap ball valve.

Vane or Piston Variable Area Flow Meters Options — By Control Box Readouts, By Flange Specifications Our variable-area meters are used in many diverse industries, monitoring flow of water coolants, lubricants, acids, chemicals, solvents, corrosive liquids, delonizde water, sea water, paint, weld-shielding gas, gases, and air. But rather than pushing a loose float up a tube against gravity , the flowing liquid pushes against a spring-loaded swinging vane or piston.

Direct linkage between the sensor and the pointer, makes low-cost switch actuation possible, without magnets. No fragile glass or plastic tubes. They work with dirty or opaque fluids with viscosities up to centipoise 3, SSU. They mount in line, in any position.

Crenger: How to export the instrument hook-up drawings